In the 1980s Europe responded to competition from Japanese auto producers with protectionist policies known as Voluntary Export Restraints (VERs). We think its response to competition from China in the 2020s will be different and less effective, potentially leaving its auto sector at greater risk.
Become a client to read more
This is premium content that requires an active Capital Economics subscription to view.
Already have an account?
You may already have access to this premium content as part of a paid subscription.
Sign in to read the content in full or get details of how you can access it
Register for free
Sign up for a free account to gain:
- Unlock additional content
- Register for Capital Economics events
- Receive email updates and economist-curated newsletters
- Request a free trial of our services